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Use of Behavioral Interventions
USE OF BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS
Behavioral interventions should be used by teachers and administrators to promote and strengthen desirable adaptive student behaviors and reduce identified inappropriate behaviors. A fundamental principle is that positive, non-aversive interventions designed to develop and strengthen desirable student behaviors should be used when they are likely to be effective. While positive approaches alone will not always succeed in managing inappropriate behavior, the use of more restrictive behavioral interventions should be used sparingly and approached with caution. In addition, all behavior interventions must incorporate procedures and methods consistent with generally accepted practice in the field of behavioral interventions.
A behavior management plan shall be written for students whose behavior significantly disrupts the student's ability, or the ability of other students, to benefit educationally. A behavior management plan will also be drafted for any student who receives special education services and (1) is suspended for more than 10 days in a school year, (2) is recommended for expulsion, and/or (3) is referred to a 45-calendar day interim alternative placement. A behavior management plan shall be based on a functional analysis of the student's behavior.
The District shall maintain a parent-teacher advisory committee to provide advice regarding the creation and amendment of this policy. The committee shall be comprised of parents, teachers, individuals knowledgeable about behavior interventions, and other interested citizens. The District has drafted administrative procedures to implement this policy.
The District shall furnish a copy of this policy and the administrative procedures to all parents of students receiving special education services within 15 calendar days after any amendments to the policy or procedures, or at the time an individualized education plan (IEP) is first implemented for a student. Students must be informed of the existence of this policy annually. In addition, at each annual review for students with disabilities, the District shall explain the policy and procedures and provide a copy of the policy and procedures to parents. A copy of the ISBE "Behavioral Interventions in Schools: guidelines may also be requested by contacting: Illinois State Board of Education, Division of Program Compliance, 100 North First Street, Springfield, IL 62777-0001, 217/782-6601, www.isbe.state.il.us.
USE OF ISOLATED TIME OUT AND PHYSICAL RESTRAINT
Isolated time out means the confinement of a student in an enclosure, whether within or outside the classroom, from which the student's egress is restricted. Physical restraint means holding a student or otherwise restricting his or her movements through the use of specific, planned techniques. Physical restraint does not include momentary person-to-person contact, without the use of material or mechanical devices, accomplished with limited force, to (1) prevent a student from completing an act that could result in potential harm to him/herself or others, or damage to property, or (2) remove a disruptive student who is unwilling to leave the area.
Isolated time out and physical restraint shall only be used as a means of maintaining a safe and orderly environment for learning, and only when necessary to preserve the safety of students and others. Isolated time out and physical restraint shall not be used as a form of punishment. In addition, physical restraint shall not be used unless the student (1) poses a physical risk to him/herself or others, (2) there is no medical contraindication to its use, and (3) the staff applying the restraint have been trained in its safe application. A verbal threat is not considered a physical risk unless the student also demonstrates a means of or intent to carry out the threat.
Written procedures governing the use of isolated time out and physical restraint shall be developed by the Superintendent or his/her designee. These procedures will be developed with input from the parent-teacher advisory committee on student discipline, and individuals with knowledge or expertise in the development and implementation of behavioral interventions.
Whenever isolated time out or physical restraint is used, the student's case manager shall be notified as soon as possible, and shall document the incident as set forth in the procedures governing isolated time out and physical restraint. Any incident that results in a serious injury to the student (as determined by the student, responsible parent or guardian, or staff) shall be reported to the Superintendent or his/her designee. The Superintendent or his/her designee shall investigate and evaluate the incident.
At least annually, the Superintendent or his/her designee shall review the use of isolated time out and physical restraint, including: the number of incidents involving isolated time out and/or physical restraint; the location and duration of each incident; the staff members involved; any injuries or property damage that occurred; and the timeliness of parental notification and administrative review.
No student may be disciplined because of the refusal of his/her parents or guardian to administer or consent to the administration of psychotropic or psychostimulant
medication to the student. At least once every two years, certified school personnel and administrators will receive in-service training on the current best practices regarding the identification and treatment of attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the application of non-aversive behavioral interventions in the school environment, and the use of psychotropic or psychostimulant medication for school-age children. This policy does not prohibit school medical staff, an individualized educational program team, or a professional worker as defined by Section 5/14-1.10 of the School Code, 105 ILCS 5/14.10, from recommending that a student be evaluated by an appropriate medical practitioner or prohibit school personnel from consulting with the practitioner with the consent of the student's parent or guardian.
A. USE OF BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS DISTRICT RESPONSIBILITIES
The District shall:
1. Maintain a parent-teacher advisory committee (or a designated subcommittee), which shall review the behavioral interventions policy as needed. This Committee shall specifically:
a. review the impact of the use of restrictive behavioral and non-restrictive behavioral interventions so as to ensure that each student's dignity and privacy are maintained and that the District adopts and maintains high professional standards and best practices in the use of restrictive behavioral interventions and non-restrictive behavioral interventions;
b. review/monitor incidents involving emergency use of restrictive behavioral interventions;
c. advise the District on staff development in the areas of behavior interventions;
d. deal with issues arising from use of restrictive behavioral interventions; and
e. identify a qualified behavioral intervention consultant(s), who shall:
• assist teams in development of behavioral intervention plans to include behavior management plans;
• consult with staff on the proper use of behavioral interventions;
• supervise the implementation of intervention plan procedures;
• ensure that the District implements behavioral interventions appropriately and in a humane fashion; and
• assist the committee responsible for reviewing the policy.
2. Ensure that behavioral interventions are carried out as prescribed in the student's behavioral management plan and in accordance with professional best practices. This will involve training individuals involved in the procedures of the intervention and ongoing monitoring of the implementation of the intervention procedures;
3. Ensure the collection of observation data in the evaluation of the interventions as provided in the student's behavior management plan;
4. Ensure that restrictive behavioral interventions are used only as long as necessary to control the student's behavior;
5. Initiate additional functional analyses and/or convene subsequent IEP meetings if significant modifications or new interventions are warranted; and
6. Ensure that the District policy and procedures regarding isolated time out and physical restraint are followed.
A functional analysis is an assessment procedure for gathering information that is used in the development of behavioral interventions. If a student requires a behavior management plan, the District shall first complete a functional analysis that includes the following:
7. Utilization of a wide range of procedures to gain a valid understanding of the student's target behavior(s);
8. A detailed description of the target behavior(s) including data on the intensity, frequency, and duration of the behavior(s);
9. A description of the settings in which the target behavior(s) occurs and an analysis of antecedents to and consequences of the behavior(s);
10. A description of other environmental variables that may affect the behavior;
11. An examination and review of the communicative and functional intent of the behavior(s);
12. A description of environmental modifications made to change the behavior(s), if any;
13. An identification of appropriate behaviors that could serve as functional alternatives to the target behavior(s); and
14. A description of the student's strengths.
SELECTION OF BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS
Once the functional analysis is complete, the student's IEP team shall convene and:
15. Determine whether behavioral interventions are required because the student is unable to comply with the District's discipline code and/or exhibits behavior that significantly disrupts his/her ability, or the ability of other students, to benefit educationally, or because the student has been (1) suspended for more than 10 days in the school year, (2) recommended for expulsion, or (3) referred to a 45-calendar day interim alternative setting;
16. Identify the desired behavioral change(s) and consider possible behavioral interventions to produce these changes;
17. Identify these interventions based upon information derived from the functional analysis;
18. Evaluate the following factors for each of these interventions:
a. impact of the intervention upon the student's physical freedom, social interaction, personal dignity and privacy;
b. how rapidly and to what extent the intervention will impact the target behavior(s);
c. whether the influence exerted by the intervention is likely to be long-lasting or permanent or to extend to a range of settings;
d. what negative side effects are likely to occur as a result of the intervention;
e. whether the intervention has a reasonable scientific and clinical basis for use in attempting to influence the target behavior(s) for the student; and
f. how easily the intervention can be implemented without stigmatizing or otherwise devaluing the student;
19. Arrange these possible interventions on the student's behavior management plan from the least to the most educationally restrictive intervention. Whenever possible, the District shall use non-restrictive interventions that are reasonably calculated to produce the desired behavioral changes(s) before using restrictive interventions.
CONTENT OF THE BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT PLAN
If a behavior management plan is developed for a student, the District shall ensure that:
20. The plan includes:
a. a summary of the findings of the functional analysis of the target behavior(s);
b. a description of previous intervention(s) attempted;
c. a detailed description of the intervention(s) to develop or strengthen alternative, more appropriate behaviors;
d. a detailed description of any restrictive behavioral interventions to be used;
e. a list of measurable behavior changes expected and method(s) of evaluation;
f. a schedule for review of the effectiveness of the intervention(s); and
g. provisions for communicating with the parents about their child's behavior and coordinating school-based and home-based interventions.
21. Staff uses the developed behavior intervention plan in all non-emergency situations when the student exhibits a target behavior; and
22. The policy and procedures governing the use of isolated time out and physical restraint are followed.
In an emergency, the District may use a non-restrictive and/or restrictive behavioral interventions. An emergency is defined as a situation in which the immediate implementation of a restrictive behavioral intervention is necessary to protect students, other individuals or the physical site from: physical injury by the student to self or others; severe emotional abuse due to verbal/nonverbal threats or gestures by the student; severe property damage by the student; and/or serious and continuous disruption by the student of the school environment.
When confronted with an emergency, the District shall:
23. Notify the parent within 24 hours when a restrictive behavioral intervention is used;
24. Use interventions that are the least intrusive possible to reasonably respond to the emergency situation. Staff should always respond to the student in a calm, professional manner; exhaust all alternative means before using force; and if force is necessary, use only as much force as needed to regain control of the situation;
25. Convene an IEP team meeting when a restrictive behavioral intervention is used more than two days in a thirty-day period. The IEP team should meet no later than 10 days after the second day of emergency procedures have commenced;
26. Document the use of a restrictive behavioral intervention to include the following:
a. description of the time, place, events, and participants;
b. description of the behavioral intervention used;
c. description of any injury, abuse, property damage and/or disruption;
d. description and dates of previous incident(s) leading to the emergency;
e. intervention approaches attempted prior to the incident(s);
f. student's response to the emergency intervention; and
g. recommendations for avoiding similar incidents in the future.
PROTECTIONS AND DUE PROCESS RIGHTS
The District shall ensure that:
27. Parents are afforded an opportunity to participate actively in the development of their child's behavior management plan;
28. Parents are provided with copies and/or explanations of the functional analysis and the behavior management plan of their child;
29. Parents are notified of any IEP team meeting to be convened regarding the behavior management plan;
30. Parents are fully informed of the rationale, procedures and possible outcomes of the behavior management plan;
31. Parents and school staff attempt resolution of any dispute if the parent disagrees with a proposed restrictive behavioral intervention or any aspect of the implementation of a restrictive behavioral intervention; and
32. Parents are fully informed of their due process rights.
Non-restrictive behavioral interventions &endash; those interventions which carry a low risk of negative side effects. Examples include: allowing student to escape task; calling/notifying parent; differential reinforcement; direct instruction; environmental/activity modifications; instructional assignment; modeling; peer involvement; planned ignoring; positive practice/over correction; positive reinforcement; prompting; proximity control; redirecting student (verbal or nonverbal signal or light touch); response-cost; self-management; shaping; teaching alternative behaviors; teaching self-reinforcement; time-out (non-exclusionary); token economy; verbal feedback; and verbal reprimand. Primary emphasis is to be given to these positive, non-restrictive interventions.
Restrictive behavioral interventions &endash; aversive and deprivation procedures that carry a high risk of negative side effects. Greater planning, supervision, documentation and caution must be exercised in their use. Examples include: detention (before/after school, weekend); exclusion from extracurricular activities; food delay; forced physical guidance; inhibiting devices; isolated time-out; negative practice; physical restraint; satiation; suspension (in-school); and suspension (out-of-school). Restrictive interventions should only be used: (1) when less restrictive interventions have not been effective in changing the target behavior(s); (2) for the minimum amount of time necessary to control the student's behavior; (3) in conjunction with positive interventions designed to strengthen competing behaviors; and (4) when less restrictive or non-restrictive interventions replace the restrictive intervention as quickly as possible. The District shall not use behavioral interventions that are prohibited by law.
B. ISOLATED TIME OUT AND PHYSICAL RESTRAINT
33. Isolated time out &endash; the confinement of a student in an enclosure, whether within or outside the classroom, from which the student's egress is restricted.
34. Physical restraint &endash; holding a student or otherwise restricting his or her movements through the use of specific, planned techniques (e.g., "basket hold" or "team control"). Physical restraint does not include momentary person-to-person contact, without the use of material or mechanical devices, accomplished with limited force, to (1) prevent a student from completing an act that could result in potential harm to him/herself or others, or damage to property, or (2) remove a disruptive student who is unwilling to leave the area.
USE OF ISOLATED TIME OUT AND PHYSICAL RESTRAINT
Isolated time out and physical restraint shall only be used as a means of maintaining a safe and orderly environment for learning, and only to the extent that they are necessary to preserve the safety of students and others. Isolated time out and physical restraint shall not be used as a form of punishment. In addition, physical restraint shall not be used unless the student (1) poses a physical risk to him/herself or others, (2) there is no medical contraindication to its use, and (3) the staff applying the restraint have been trained in its safe application. A verbal threat is not considered a physical risk unless the student also demonstrates a means of or intent to carry out the threat. Mechanical or chemical restraints will not be used under any circumstances, and medically prescribed restraint procedures will not be used for purposes of maintaining discipline.
A student will not be kept in isolated time out for more than 30 minutes after the student's inappropriate behavior ceases.
A student will be released from physical restraint immediately upon a determination by the staff member administering the restraint that the student is no longer in imminent danger of causing physical harm to him/herself or others.
ISOLATED TIME OUT ENCLOSURE
Any enclosure used for isolated time out shall:
1. Have the same ceiling height as the surrounding room(s) and be large enough to accommodate the student being isolated and any other individual required to accompany that student;
2. Be constructed of materials that cannot be used by the student to harm him/herself or others, be free of electrical outlets, exposed wiring, and other objects that could be used by the student to harm him/herself or others, and be designed so that the student cannot climb up the walls (including walls far enough apart so as not to offer the student sufficient leverage for climbing); and
3. Be designed to permit continuous visual monitoring of and communication with the student.
If the time out enclosure is fitted with a door, a steel or wooden door of solid-core construction will be used, and any viewing panel on the door will be unbreakable. If a locking mechanism is used on the enclosure, it must be constructed so it will engage only when a key, handle, knob or other similar device is being held in position by a person, unless the mechanism is an electrically or electronically controlled one that is automatically released when the building's fire alarm system is engaged. Upon release of the locking mechanism by the supervising adult, the door must be able to be opened readily.
The adult who is responsible for supervising the student in isolated time out will remain within two feet of the enclosure, and must be able to see the student at all times.
PHYSICAL RESTRAINT CONSIDERATIONS
Any application of physical restraint shall take into consideration the safety and security of the student, and will not rely on pain as an intentional method of control. In determining whether a student who is being physically restrained should be removed from the area where such restraint was initiated, the supervising adult(s) will consider the potential for injury to the student, the student's need for privacy, and the educational and emotional well-being of other students in the vicinity.
If physical restraint is used on a student whose primary mode of communication is sign language or an augmentative mode, the student's hands will be free from restraint for brief periods unless such freedom is likely to result in harm to the student or others.
NOTIFICATION AND DOCUMENTATION
Whenever isolated time out or physical restraint are used, the student's case manager or his/her designee shall be notified as soon as possible, but no later than the end of the school day on which the incident occurred. The case manager or his/her designee will document the incident in writing. The written record will include:
1. The student's name;
2. The date of the incident;
3. The beginning and ending times of the incident;
4. A description of any relevant events leading up to the incident;
5. A description of any interventions used prior to isolated time out or physical restraint;
6. A description of the incident and/or student behavior that resulted in isolated time out or physical restraint;
7. A log of the student's behavior in isolated time out or during physical restraint, including a description of the restraint technique(s) used and any other interaction between the student and staff;
8. A description of any injuries (to self or others) or property damage;
9. A description of any planned approach to deal with future behaviors;
10. A list of school personnel involved; and
11. The date on which parental notification took place.
This record will be completed no later than the beginning of the school day following the episode of isolated time out or physical restraint. A copy of the record shall be kept in the student's temporary student record and with the student's case manager.
Within 24 hours after any use of isolated time out or physical restraint, the school district will send written notice to the student's parents/guardians unless the parent/guardian has provided written waiver of this notification requirement. Notice to the parents/guardians will include the student's name, date of incident, description of intervention used, and the name and telephone number of a contact person who can provide additional information.
REPEATED USE OF ISOLATED TIME OUT OR PHYSICAL RESTRAINT
If an episode of isolated time out exceeds 30 minutes, an episode of physical restraint exceeds 15 minutes, or repeated episodes have occurred during any three-hour period, a certified staff member knowledgeable about the use of isolated time out or trained in the use of physical restraint, as applicable, will evaluate the situation. The evaluation will consider the appropriateness of continuing the procedure in use, including the student's potential need for medication, nourishment, or use of restroom, and the need for alternative strategies. The results of the evaluation will be put in writing with copies kept in the student's temporary student record and with the student's case manager.
When a student has first experienced three instances of isolated time out or physical restraint, school staff must (1) review the effectiveness of the procedure(s) used, (2) draft or review and revise if appropriate an individual behavior management plan for the student that provides for either continued use of isolated time out and physical restraint or for the use of other, specified interventions, and (3) consider the student's potential need for an alternative program or special education services. This review must include input from school personnel who initiated, monitored and supervised the use of the isolated time out or physical restraint. If the student is currently eligible for special education and related services, this review should take place at an IEP team meeting. Regardless of whether the student is eligible for special education services or not, the student's parents/guardians must receive an invitation to participate in the review and 10-days notice of the date, time and location of the review. The parents/guardians must also be informed of the student's potential need for special education or an alternative program, and that the results of the review will be made part of the student's temporary record.
All special education staff will receive training regarding the procedures governing the use of isolated time out. In addition, any staff member who may apply physical restraint will receive systematic training by the District or an external entity that includes:
1. Appropriate procedures for preventing the need for physical restraint, including the de-escalation of problematic behavior, relationship-building, and the use of alternatives to restraint;
2. A description and identification of dangerous behaviors on the part of students that may indicate the need for physical restraint and methods for evaluating the risk of harm in individual situations in order to determine whether the use of restraint is warranted;
3. The simulated experience of administering and receiving a variety of physical restraint techniques, ranging from minimal physical involvement to very controlling interventions;
4. Instruction regarding the effects of physical restraint on the person restrained, including instruction on monitoring physical signs of distress and obtaining medical assistance;
5. Instruction regarding documentation and reporting requirements and investigation of injuries and complaints; and
6. Demonstration by participants of proficiency in administering physical restraint.
Staff members can only use physical restraint techniques in which they have received training within the preceding two years. Written evidence of participation in the requisite training is required. An individual can provide training to another in a particular method of physical restraint only if he or she has written evidence of completing training in that technique within the preceding one-year period.
LEGAL REF: 105 ILCS 5/14-8.05
105 ILCS 2-3.130
105 ILCS 10-20.33
105 ILCS 10-20.35
Title 23 Ill.Adm.Code §§ 1.280; 1.285
Revised: 04/03/03, 06/08/06
Board of Education School District 102